[Unbound-users] DNS poisoning - any ideas how this can happen?

W.C.A. Wijngaards wouter at nlnetlabs.nl
Tue Feb 10 09:18:44 UTC 2015

Hash: SHA256

Hi Martin,

Looking through that forum thread, I see that unbound's cache contains
bad items and that the NS records for com, net org edu are point to
nsX.csof.net.  And I wonder if unbound is getting cache poisoned or if
your 'upstream resolver' or upstream captive-resolver (i.e. the has been hijacked by your ISP and is serviced by other
software) is getting cache poisoned.

The unbound logs should tell you if you enable verbose logging (I
would recommend level 4, or perhaps level 5 so you can see who
requests those bad domain names in your network).  Or when unbound is
misbehaving dig @ from a box with similar routing, and see if
those responses have been cache poisoned.

When I try to resolve api-nyc01.exip.org here I see unbound complain
that it has to remove potential poisonous DNS RRsets from the answers.
 It does so and is not poisoned:

reply from <exip.org.>
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, rcode: NOERROR, id: 26841
;; flags: qr aa ; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 4, ADDITIONAL: 4
;; api-nyc01.exip.org.	IN	A

api-nyc01.exip.org.	10	IN	A

org.	172800	IN	NS	ns1.csof.net.
org.	172800	IN	NS	ns2.csof.net.
org.	172800	IN	NS	ns3.csof.net.
org.	172800	IN	NS	ns4.csof.net.

ns1.csof.net.	100	IN	A
ns2.csof.net.	100	IN	A
ns3.csof.net.	100	IN	A
ns4.csof.net.	100	IN	A

Humourously (if you think this is funny), it could be a
misconfiguration and bad DNS ISP practices interfering here.  Some
domain hosters serve .org and .com zones and they have *.com and *.org
wildcards on those servers.  Thus they do not reconfigure their DNS
servers when they buy or sell a domain.  But that produces these types
of 'poisonous' answers.  Badly written DNS software could then get DNS
cache poisoned as a result.  Unbound should not get DNS cache
poisoned, there is explicit fixup code for this.

Because setting different upstream IP forwarders changes the outcome,
I think it may be the upstream DNS server that gets cache poisoned
(after a lookup of one of these affected domains), and some ISPs
interpose all DNS traffic with their own DNS servers, that may be
getting poisoned or maybe only traffic to 'popular' DNS sites.  I
doubt google DNS itself is getting cache poisoned, but it is a
technical possibility.

Best regards,

On 10/02/15 09:27, W.C.A. Wijngaards wrote:
> Hi Martin,
> On 09/02/15 18:33, Martin Bachmann wrote:
>> Hi all,
>> We've run into a dns poisoning issue in our company network since
>>  Friday. The issue is being discussed here: 
>> https://forum.pfsense.org/index.php?topic=87491.0 - we use
>> Unbound on a pfSense. A few other users have the same problem:
>> - All of a sudden, all host names resolve to a malware host. -
>> It stops automatically after some time - There's no arp
>> poisoning going on, so it really comes from Unbound on the
>> pfSense
> So, unbound comes with a set of commands for unbound-control that 
> allow you to monitor the runtime settings, and these are exactly
> meant to be able to audit the settings in the runtime daemon and if
> they are still correct.  unbound-control list_forwards.
> You could try to use packet capture of traffic going to
> and the responses.   Or you can get unbound to log verbosely (high 
> verbosity setting), although much slower at level 4 it'll print a 
> dig-like output for packets received from upstream, so you can see 
> where the malicious data comes from.
> Or just dig @ from the commandline, that has the same
> routing as the pfSense firewall box with unbound on it, and look at
> the result.
> Unbound has DNSSEC capabilities that are meant to protect against 
> these sorts of things (only for DNSSEC signed domains of course).
> You can easily turn it on with unbound-anchor -a /etc/root.key and
> putting auto-trust-anchor-file: "/etc/root.key" in unbound.conf.
> Best regards, Wouter
>> Example:
>> While "on":
>> $ host omx.ch <http://omx.ch> omx.ch <http://omx.ch> has address 
>> omx.ch <http://omx.ch> mail is handled by 10 
>> mx1.csof.net <http://mx1.csof.net>. omx.ch <http://omx.ch> mail
>> is handled by 10 mx2.csof.net <http://mx2.csof.net>.
>> Normally:
>> $host omx.ch <http://omx.ch> omx.ch <http://omx.ch> has address 
>> omx.ch <http://omx.ch> mail is handled by 10 
>> mxhost1.omx.ch <http://mxhost1.omx.ch>
>> Other wrongly resolved ips lead to sso.mlwr.io 
>> <http://sso.mlwr.io> (which tries to redirect back to 
>> xsso.<correcthost.com
>> <http://correcthost.com>>/<someidentifier>)
>> Any ideas?
>> - Martin
>> _______________________________________________ Unbound-users 
>> mailing list Unbound-users at unbound.net 
>> http://unbound.nlnetlabs.nl/mailman/listinfo/unbound-users
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